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The light-loving almond plant is rather tall. It is worth remembering that spring frosts can ruin the flowers that are set.
- Features and care of almonds
- Essential soil for almonds
- Landing rules
- Forming a bush
Features and care of almonds
Many wondered how almonds or avocados or figs grow, that is, something exotic for our latitude, and some are trying to grow various plants that are unheard of for us in their homes, but not everyone is successful. Many are trying to grow almonds, which give tasty and healthy nuts and which can really be grown here.
There are many varieties of almonds, with bitter fruits and sweet fruits. Almonds with sweet fruits are specially grown for the food, medical and cosmetic industries. Almonds contain magnesium, protein, copper, phosphorus, iron, zinc, vitamins B and E, and manganese.
Almonds are not an exotic plant, but they are not common in latitudes with a harsh climate. More often it can be found in the Crimea, in the southern territories of the former USSR, in Asia, in the Caucasus, in the Tien Shan and the Himalayas, on gravel, stony and mountain elephants.
Almonds are a tree or shrub, and as already mentioned, it is quite tall: it can reach 10 meters in height, it blooms with white-pink or white flowers, and the fruit is an egg-shaped stone. Almond blossoms begin very early, before the leaves appear and before other trees bloom.
Almonds have an underdeveloped rhizome, in which there are only up to five skeletal roots, but the roots are strong and penetrate to a sufficient depth, due to which the almond tolerates drought well. Almonds are perfectly pollinated, but for this it is necessary to plant several trees nearby. Full and strong fruiting occurs in the eighth year after planting. Almonds are unpretentious, except for the intolerance of frost above -30 degrees, they like a lot of sun and cannot stand the proximity of groundwater.
Essential soil for almonds
Loamy soils (clay soils are an absolute alternative), ordinary chernozems, leached and calcareous will become an excellent soil composition for good growth and development of almonds. If the soil used for planting contains a high concentration of lime, then it is most suitable for an almond garden. Saline and acidic soils are categorically contraindicated for this plant.
It is imperative to monitor the condition of the soil during the growing season: to loosen, to water on time.
Fertilizers are applied exclusively in late autumn. It can be compost, manure, bird droppings; as well as potassium salts and phosphoric salts. If the fertilizer contains nitrogen, then it must be applied before the beginning of June.
Planting almonds should take place in late autumn or early spring. Annual seedlings are planted according to a simple principle: 7x5 or 7x4. Since absolutely all varieties of almonds need high-quality and timely pollination, the main varieties (dominant) must be placed with pollinators (4-6 different varieties). That is, in order for the almonds to bear fruit after their flowering, there must be several trees of other varieties of almonds nearby. Almonds are pollinated directly by insects in a natural way, therefore, beehives should be located on the site used for an almond orchard: at least 4 beehives per hectare of land area.
The place for the location of the bush (for planting it) must be chosen in a place protected from the wind. Preferably - open to the southern direction of the area of the site.
Almonds are propagated by seeds, which must be soaked and sown in advance in specially prepared soil in autumn or spring; seedlings are planted either in late autumn or early spring. Also, almonds can be propagated by cuttings and root division of the bush.
In the case of reproduction of a shrub, it is not necessary to graft it with branches of similar varieties for vegetation. The rootstock can be either sweet or bitter almond varieties. And also it can be inoculated with peach, plum, cherry plum, necessarily vaccinated at the age of 2 years.
Forming a bush
In the spring, immediately after planting, the seedlings (at the age of one year) are shortened to a height of 80-100-120 centimeters, limiting the shape of the crown to 30-40 centimeters. Of all the available grown and strengthened shoots, only about 4-5 of the strongest are left. In about 3-4 years, the base of the crown (resembling a bowl) is formed in this way. Pruning should be done after 4-5 years. This is, in fact, thinning branches that thicken the crown, as well as excess shoots, and the so-called "competitors".
Growths over the age of one year are shortened to 60 centimeters. After such rejuvenating pruning, almond trees can fully recover. If such pruning is not carried out at the required time, then the fruit ovary weakens or crumbles.
Of course, not all varieties of almonds are suitable for different climatic conditions and territorial location. But if you take into account the many features of its cultivation, then you are guaranteed success.