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The tomato is one of the most popular vegetables. In the beds of almost every gardener, red ripe tomatoes can be noticed. But in order to achieve a rich harvest, you should know the technology and features of cultivation.
- Tomato seed preparation
- Features of planting seedlings in the ground
- Care advice
Preparation of tomato seeds and methods of germination
To grow healthy and strong seedlings, you need to plant the seeds correctly. Some gardeners use already proven varieties, others are looking for new large-fruited. You can get a good variety of seeds from a specialist store.
They should not be soaked before planting. Usually, seeds are treated with pesticides and other active ingredients before being sold. Therefore, when soaking, chemicals are washed off and after sowing the seeds will become susceptible to pests.
If the seeds are harvested from their garden and bought in a store and have not been treated with anything, then this should be done before sowing.
Seeds should be prepared in advance, starting at the end of January. To begin with, they are warmed up for 5 days at a temperature not exceeding 25 degrees. It is important to avoid overheating and overdrying the seeds.
Homemade seeds should be soaked in a saline solution (add 3-4 g of salt per 100 ml of water). Then leave for a couple of minutes, and then drain the solution. The seeds must be rinsed with clean water. The next stage is seed disinfection. In a weak solution of potassium permanganate, keep the seeds for about 20 minutes. This procedure will relieve the seedlings of many diseases.
The next stage involves the process of germinating the seeds. To do this, wrap the seeds in a cloth, moisten them in water, put them in a plastic bag and leave them in a warm place for a while. After a few days, if sprouted roots are noticeable, then you can sow.
There is another way to germinate tomato seeds. They are soaked in water, the temperature should not exceed 30-40 degrees. Next, wrap it with a damp cloth and cover with a centimeter layer of cotton wool.
Leave in this state for a week at a warm temperature. Using this method of germination, it is necessary to regularly spray the cotton wool with water.
Some gardeners, to accelerate the process of seed germination, are pre-soaked in aloe or Kalanchoe juice for an hour. Seeds begin to sow in March. You can use pots, boxes, jars, cans, glasses, etc. as a container. Seeds are sown in rows at a distance of 3-5 cm from each other and 1 cm deep.
After completing the sowing process, leave the container with seeds in the room on the windowsill and cover with foil. As soon as the seed shoots have appeared, the container must be rearranged to another place, the temperature must be lowered to 12 degrees and provided with good lighting.
Features of planting seedlings in the ground
Tomatoes are light-loving, drought-resistant plants. They prefer loamy and sandy loam soils. For seedlings, the soil should be free of weeds, pests and bacteria. Tomatoes do not get along with potatoes, so it is not recommended to grow them nearby, as well as on the soil where the potatoes used to be.
The soil for planting seedlings is prepared in early autumn. The mixture should consist of horse manure and turf in a 2: 1 ratio. Then sand, 0.5 liters of ash and 0.5 cups of superphosphate are added to this mass on a bucket of water.
Usually, seedlings are planted in greenhouses or small film shelters. Early varieties are planted in May and only in greenhouses, medium late varieties from late May to early June.
Of particular importance is not only the correct preparation of not only seedlings, but also the beds. The holes are dug 25-30 cm deep. Add 2 liters of water to the hole, then fertilize and mix. After the water is absorbed, plant the seedlings.
Planting is best done in cloudy or wet weather. In hot weather, the best time to plant seedlings is morning or evening.
Proper care of a vegetable crop will allow you to harvest a rich harvest. The most important conditions for a good harvest are watering and feeding the plant.
It is important not to allow the soil to dry out, which can lead to cracking of the vegetable. With an excess of moisture, the ripening of the fruit is delayed.
Watering tomatoes is necessary at the root. It is desirable to use warm water. Water should be avoided on leaves, stems and fruits. This can cause the development of late blight.
Watering is recommended no more than 2 times a week. To make the fruits sweet, use a solution of potassium permanganate once a week. The second important point to consider is stepchildren. Extra shoots should be removed if they reach 2-3 cm. The pinching procedure is carried out using scissors.
If you leave a small stump after cutting off the shoots, it will slow down the development of the new shoot.
Yellowed lower leaves as well as shoots should be removed. During the flowering period, the vegetable crop must be sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate or boric acid.
Like any vegetables, tomatoes also need feeding. It should be remembered that it is necessary to fertilize the tomatoes before the ovary forms. It is best to use ash along with organic fertilizers. Scatter ash under the tomato bushes at the rate of 3 tablespoons per square meter.
Usually, abundant watering and top dressing alternate. You can use a mineral mixture as a top dressing. Pour ash into a two-liter jar and pour boiling water over 4-5 liters. After the ash has cooled, add 10 g of boric acid in powder form and a bottle of iodine.
Add another 5 liters of cooled boiled water to the container and mix everything well. Insist the resulting mineral mixture for 24 hours. In addition to the mineral solution, you can use a yeast mixture.
In a three-liter jar, dissolve live yeast in warm boiled water. Add half a glass of sugar to the jar and ferment. The mixture must be shaken periodically. Pour a glass of yeast mixture into a 10 liter bucket. One bush requires a liter of fertilizer mixture.
The budding grower should regularly inspect and check tomatoes for any pests or signs of disease. To get rid of wood lice and slugs, lettuce leaves are scattered around the bushes.
If the tomatoes are tall, then they must be tied to supports. This should be done when the seedlings take root. In the open field, support should be made when the first leaves of seedlings appear. The depth of the support should be about 40 cm, the distance from the stem to the peg is about 10 cm.
Do not forget to spud the tomatoes. It is advisable to carry out hilling at least three times per season.
The roots of a tomato grow in periods, so hilling should be carried out during the period of root growth. The main sign of root growth is the appearance of bulges at the base of the earth.
A change in shade at the stem of a tomato is also a sign of root growth. Correct hilling involves sprinkling with moist, but not dry soil. Thus, the root system will be powerful and branched.
Even a novice gardener can grow a high yield of tomatoes. If you adhere to the correct growing technology, then the first red fruits can be obtained at the end of June.
Tomato care on video: