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Grapes have already become a fairly popular crop in our gardens. One type of grape care is pruning.
- Pruning grapes and what it is for
- Pruning time and plant preparation
- Materials and tools for pruning grapes
- Basic rules for pruning vines
Pruning grapes and what it is for
Vine pruning means cutting out one part of the branches and shortening others. In other words, when the grapes are pruned, a bush is formed. Pruning grapes is necessary, first of all, to increase the yield of the bush.
The fact is that cultivated grapes, unlike their wild counterparts, spend much more energy on laying and ripening fruits. And if the branches are not cut off, then the root system will not be able to cope with the number of clustered brushes and the fruits will be small. On the other hand, after pruning the bush, it activates all its forces and direct them to increased reproduction, that is, the formation of seeds, as a result, large brushes with large berries are formed.
Is it necessary to prune grapes
For those who are just planning to plant grapes in their garden, the need for annual pruning is a very topical issue, since this procedure is mistakenly considered very difficult.
The answer to this question is unequivocal. You need to prune grapes for several reasons:
- increase in yield
- improving the taste of berries
- a properly pruned and shaped bush is easier to care for and harvest
- properly carried out annual pruning increases the life span of the bush
Pruning time and plant preparation
Pruning grapes can be done in spring or fall. In the climatic zone where grapes are covered, pruning is recommended in two stages. The main forming one is carried out in the fall, before the onset of frost. In this case, you need to cut out only all weak thickening shoots, as well as unripe vine tops. Then the grape bush is covered until spring.
In the spring, after the buds have woken up, the final pruning is carried out, leaving the required amount of fruiting vine.
This pruning method simplifies the process of removing the vine from the support and shelter for the winter. But still, spring is considered the best time for pruning; it is practiced for non-covering varieties, since an uncut bush winters better. Pruning should be done as soon as possible after the kidneys have woken up.
This should be done very carefully, since young buds are very fragile and break off easily. To prepare the bush for pruning, you need to free its base. Then you need to remove all thin and unproductive vines, leaving the strongest, of which the bush will then form.
Materials and tools for pruning grapes
The first and main tool for pruning grapes is the pruner. If the bush is old and a radical rejuvenating pruning is planned, then a lopper and a hacksaw may be needed. All instruments must be well sharpened and decontaminated. Disinfection can be carried out with any alcohol-containing solution.
Grape pruning methods
Vine pruning is divided into three groups:
They differ in the number of buds left on the vine.
Short pruning of grapes. With this pruning, no more than 4 fruiting buds remain on the vine. This method is used for very young bushes. This method allows you to grow strong, fruiting shoots with good bunches. On old bushes, this method is used in addition to other species. Such pruning is used for one or two vines and leave them in reserve in case of damage to the bush.
Medium grape pruning. With this pruning, the number of eyes varies from 5 to 10. This is the most commonly used method of pruning grapes. It is suitable for almost all varieties.
Video on the correct pruning of grapes for beginners:
Long pruning of grapes. With this method, more than 10 buds remain on the vine. It is used mainly for individual grape varieties or for the purposeful cultivation of long vines, for example, when entwining a gazebo.
Basic rules for pruning vines
In order to get a well-bearing bush, you need to know and most importantly apply in practice several pruning rules:
- When pruning stepchildren, a stump must remain on the vine. This is done in order not to damage the kidney.
- The length that can be left is determined by the thickness and development of the shoot. The weaker the shoot, the longer it is cut off and, conversely, a longer part can be left in healthy shoots.
- The incision is made 2-3 cm above the kidney.
- If a new fruiting arm is formed, then the last year's replacement vine is completely removed, and of the two developed shoots, one is cut off for fruiting the other for replacement.
- If weak shoots have developed on the vine left for replacement in the current year, then fruiting branches form on the branches of the previous year.
- They also act if only one shoot has developed on the vine, then in this case it is left for replacement, and the fruiting sleeve is formed from the growth of previous years.
- It is necessary to try to ensure that the wounds left after trimming are on one side of the fruiting sleeve, if possible inside. Otherwise, the sleeve dies off quickly.
- Perennial branches with anti-aging pruning are removed completely, without leaving a hemp.
- If it is necessary to reduce the length of the fruiting sleeve, then one strongest shoot is left on it for fruiting, and the replacement shoot is lowered to the required length.
Pruning grapes is a necessary activity to obtain a stable harvest. It should be carried out annually, choosing the optimal time, taking into account the climatic zone and the variety of grapes grown. In order for the pruning to be done correctly, you need to adhere to the basic rules, which may seem complicated and incomprehensible to a novice grower.
But having received practice, it will be possible to easily prune the vine. In order not to immediately be disappointed in the grape culture, you first need to choose the easiest varieties to plant for planting.