Rhododendron in the Urals - what varieties can be grown, features of care

Rhododendron in the Urals - what varieties can be grown, features of care

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It is a widespread plant due to its bright and lush flowers. For cultivation of rosewood in mid-latitudes, there are special, cold-resistant species.


  1. Characteristics of rhododendrons
  2. Common species and varieties of frost-resistant rhododendrons
  3. Reproduction of rhododendron
  4. Preparing for planting - how to choose seedlings, where to plant
  5. Features of planting rhododendrons in the Urals
  6. Agrotechnical cultivation

Characteristics of rhododendrons

Rhododendrons (rose trees) are deciduous evergreen shrubs. In rare cases, they can be represented by small tree species. They are part of the Heather family, distributed mainly in the Northern Hemispheres in the United States, the Himalayas and East Asia.

On the territory of the Urals, you can find representatives of the frost-resistant rhododendron varieties. Despite the widespread belief that they are not adapted to the cold conditions of the north of the country, some species, with proper care, feel quite comfortable in these areas.

Like any other species, these shrubs have a number of characteristics:

  • They are mainly represented by shrub forms. Rhododendron in Siberia rarely grows particularly high, although in general the height of the bush can vary from 10 cm to 10 m;
  • They have erect stems, in some cases they can creep along the ground;
  • The root is superficial, which is especially important when transplanting, since the risk of injuring it is minimized;
  • The leaves are ovate or obovate. Sizes range from small to large, which can remotely resemble ficus leaves. They can crumble, both every year and every few years, depending on the variety. They can be either sessile or attached to the stem by means of petioles;
  • The fruit is a multi-seeded capsule. Seeds are small, not more than 2 mm in diameter;
  • Flowers are distinguished by a variety of all shades. In shape, they can be tubular, bell-shaped, and funnel-shaped. Depending on the species, some may also have a pleasant smell.

Many gardeners consider these plants to be capricious, requiring special care and not designed for harsh natural conditions. However, with some care, they grow and develop even in the middle zone of the country.

Common species and varieties of frost-resistant rhododendrons

Modern taxonomy numbers more than eight hundred of the most diverse species, which differ in a number of characteristics. When choosing shrubs that could be grown in the harsh conditions of the Urals, they usually focus on the most frost-resistant. These include three types: Daurian, Ledebour and Schlippenbach.

Daurian rhododendron, or wild rosemary, is a frost-hardy shrub with spreading branches. Can withstand temperatures as low as -45C. The height does not exceed two meters.

Other features include:

  • Natural habitat - Siberia, China and Korea, where it can grow in forests, occupying the second tier. Occurs in rocky areas;
  • It grows both in groups and in individual bushes;
  • Stems are erect, covered with grayish bark;
  • The leaves are small, no more than 2 cm, oval in shape, with a leathery coating. During flowering, the leaves are green with a brownish underside, and turn reddish in autumn. Do not fall off completely for the winter;
  • Flowering occurs in late April - early May, even before new leaves appear on the stems. Lasts for three weeks;
  • Flowers - pink, with a slight purple tint. They differ in a funnel-like shape, collected in inflorescences.
  • It also differs from other varieties in that it can bloom twice a year: in spring and autumn.

Rhododendron Ledebour, or maral, is a shrub with a compact arrangement of branches. Height - up to two meters. In early spring, it sheds old leaves in preparation for the flowering period. Can withstand temperatures as low as -32 C.

However, if the frosts last too long, the growth processes may be disturbed.

Other features include:

  • The natural area of ​​distribution is the Altai regions and the subalpine strip. Occurs among the undergrowth of coniferous forests;
  • Shoots - thin, covered with dark bark;
  • Leaves are oval, with a leathery cover. The color of the leaf blade is dark at the top and slightly lighter at the bottom. Winter is spent on branches and crumbles before flowering;
  • Flowers - deep purple-pink color, collected in inflorescences;
  • The flowering period is four weeks.

The shrub is perfect for middle lane gardeners. With proper care, they will delight the owner with bright and long flowering.

Schlippenbach's rhododendron is a Red Book plant that can be called a tree. It reaches a height of two meters. It tolerates a drop in temperature down to -32C.

Other features include:

  • Natural distribution area: Primorye, China, Japan and Korea;
  • Leaves are oval, medium in size, rich in green color. Fall in the winter;
  • The flowers are large and white, with a pinkish or peach tint. Collected in inflorescences of four bells in each. They have a light, pleasant aroma;
  • Flowering begins in May and can last for a month.
  • Despite the prevailing opinion, among rhododendrons there are frost-resistant varieties that may well delight the eye of gardeners in areas with a cold climate. The species diversity of frost-resistant varieties is not limited only to these three, but they are the most famous.

Reproduction of rhododendron

As with many other plants, there are several types of reproduction for the rose tree: generative and vegetative. For shrubs of the Urals, any of these methods are suitable.

Differences in planting relate mainly to the nuances of caring for seedlings and the variety of the mother flower.

So, for example, Schlippenbach's rhododendron can be derived from seeds. This is a difficult method, it requires a lot of effort.

So, it is necessary:

  • Buy seeds - specialized flower shops are best suited for this;
  • Prepare a pot for planting seeds and a 3/1 mixture of dry peat and fine sand for the substrate, which must be thoroughly watered;
  • After sowing the seeds, sprinkle everything with fine sand and cover the pot with glass. Place in a bright, warm room. Air the crops every day, remove condensed water and moisten the soil;
  • The first shoots can be expected in a month from the moment of sowing;
  • After the first leaves are formed at the seedlings, they must be transplanted into the greenhouse, with the distance between the seedlings at least two centimeters;
  • You can plant in open soil after two years.

Before shrubs grown in this way, it will take at least seven years.

Another planting method is cuttings. The wild rosemary reproduces well by this method.

Like the previous one, this is a rather laborious and lengthy process, for which it is necessary:

  • Pick up woody shoots, 8-10 cm long. It is best to do this in the spring, before the budding period;
  • The lower part of the cuttings must be cleaned and placed in a special solution for one day to form roots. You can buy the solution at any flower shop;
  • For the preparation of the substrate, you can use the same mixture as for the seeds;
  • Having rooted the cuttings in the substrate, cover the top with a jar or other transparent container to form a dome;
  • The speed of the rooting process can depend on the species of rosewood and last from a month in deciduous to four in evergreens;
  • After the cuttings have taken root, it is recommended to transplant them into a wider container, pre-filled with a mixture of peat and pine needles. They must stay in containers until the onset of the spring period. For the winter, it is better to place them in a cool room.

After all this, the seedlings are transferred to the greenhouse and only after two years, they can be planted on the street bed.

The last and easiest way to reproduce is by layering. It is better to produce it in spring, after the first frost has receded.

This requires:

  • On the mother plant, select young and flexible branches, bend them to the ground, making a small incision on each bark;
  • Fix the branches to the soil and dig in so that only the top remains on the surface;
  • Sprinkled parts need to be watered.
  • After the rooting of the cuttings, it is best to separate them from the bush in the spring, since during the winter the young flowers will have time to get stronger.
  • All three types are effective. It is worth choosing based on your experience, the availability of time and space.

Preparing for planting - how to choose seedlings, where to plant

When choosing a seedling, it is worth considering a number of features. It is better to buy winter-hardy rhododendron in special stores or agricultural firms that breed these plants. In addition to the confidence in the quality of the products, the buyer can get advice on the rules of transplantation and care here.

When choosing, you should pay attention to:

  • The level of frost resistance, which is especially important for survival in the conditions of the region;
  • Closure of the root system, as it can dry out;
  • The condition of the seedlings - the integrity of the covers, the absence of damage, parasites and diseases;
  • Cleanliness level with humidity in the container.

After choosing a plant, it is recommended to pay attention to the selection of a place for planting.

It should be borne in mind that shrubs:

  • Grow well in the lower tier, under trees, in diffused light;
  • They do not tolerate complete blackout - this slows down, and then completely stops the flowering process;
  • Grow best in northern flower beds;
  • They love humid air, so they grow well near water bodies. However, it should be borne in mind that water should not accumulate at the roots, this can lead to decay;
  • They do not tolerate blown flower beds, they do not tolerate a draft.

Do not forget that these flowers do not tolerate unsuitable soil quite well.

So, the substrate must necessarily have:

  • High acidity values. It can be increased by adding high peat or special chemicals;
  • Outflow of excess moisture, without its accumulation;
  • Loose, lightweight structure;
  • A covering of coniferous needles that will stop the soil from drying out.

If you take into account all the rules for choosing and planting a rose tree, in the coming years, it will delight the owners with rapid growth and abundant flowering.

Features of planting rhododendrons in the Urals

Rhododendron in the Urals is best planted in open soil in spring. Thus, the flower will have time to prepare for the first frost.

For planting it is recommended:

  • Prepare holes 35-40 cm deep, up to half a meter wide;
  • Fill the holes with a mixture of peat and needles, which must be trampled down well so that the hole corresponds to the volume of the root system of the shrub;
  • Place a special drainage layer on the bottom of the fossa to prevent excess moisture from accumulating. You can use gravel or bricks for this;
  • Carefully remove the seedlings and lower them into the holes. Cover with substrate so that the root collar is at the same level with the substrate.

After planting, the flower must be well watered and mulched at the shoot in order to protect it from excessive drying out. For this, it is recommended to use pine needles or dried peat, which will also protect against hypothermia.

Agrotechnical cultivation

When leaving, it should be borne in mind that in the Urals, plants must be covered for the winter.

In addition, the plant needs:

  • Regular Watering - Each flower requires two waterings every seven days during dormancy and more than three during flowering. In addition to watering at the root, you need to spray the leaves, for this it is better to take rainwater with the addition of oxalic acid;
  • Systematic loosening - since the root is superficial, loosening the soil near the shoot is prohibited, since there is a high risk of damage;
  • Mulching - systematic sprinkling of the substrate with needles or dry peat keeps the soil loose and slows down the growth of weeds;
  • Top dressing - the first spring fertilization with nitrogen and the second during flowering. It can be used with superphosphate or ammonium.

In addition to the standard care of the plant, it is worth monitoring its condition, since the plant can get sick or be damaged by pests:

  • Caterpillars or slugs - must be removed manually;
  • Weevils or ticks - for elimination it is better to use diazonin. They should spray the plant itself and the soil around it;
  • Aphids or scale insects - karbofos is suitable to eliminate the problem;
  • Rust is a disease that develops as a result of a failure of the irrigation regime. To eliminate it, it is worth using fungicides;
  • Rot - in mild forms, it is recommended to remove damaged shoots and treat the shrub with fungicides. If the plant is seriously damaged, it must be removed.

The last item to keep in mind is winter shelter. It is better to start after the first cold snap.

For this you need:

  • Cover the root part with peat and spruce branches;
  • Bend the branches of the bush to the soil and also cover with spruce branches;
  • Remove insulation only after the frost has receded.

The cultivation technique includes a number of features. However, subject to all the rules, soon the rose tree will delight the owners with abundant flowering.

Rhododendrons, contrary to popular belief, adapt well to the cold climate of the Urals. However, do not forget that these are whimsical plants that require special lighting and moisture conditions.

You can learn more about how rhododendrons tolerate low temperatures by watching the video:

Watch the video: Growing on Rhododendron seedlings - Burncoose Nurseries (August 2022).